FFR and iFR used to Evaluate Coronary Stenosis
FFR and iFR are both indices that use the concept of flow reserve to evaluate the severity of a coronary stenosis.
Abdominal Hernia Graft Placement
The image was used by the graft manufacturer to show placement options for the biological graft including onlay, retromuscular, preperitoneal and intraperitoneal placement.
Perineuronal Nets (PNNs)
Perineuronal nets form during postnatal development, marking the end of what’s known as the “critical period” of heightened brain plasticity. PNNs are composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and are responsible for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain. PNNs are found around certain neuron cell bodies and proximal neurites in the central nervous system. Increasingly, researchers are turning to PNNs as potential targets to enhance plasticity for the treatment of various diseases. This illustration was created for the cover The Scientist magazine.
Illustration for a poster about spinal conditions and diseases, including compression fractures, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, foraminal stenosis (pinched nerves), spondylosis (facet arthritis), degenerative disc disease, spondylolysis (pars interarticularis fracture), isthmic spondylolisthesis, and a herniated nucleus pulposus.
Medtronic Ankerstim™ Occipital Nerve Stimulation Device
Occipital Nerve Stimulation (ONS) therapy consists of applying mild electrical stimulation to the nerves via wires implanted just under the skin, near the occipital nerves at the base of the head. The wires are connected to an implanted battery that generates the stimulation, which interferes with pain signals and may evoke the sensation of tingling or paresthesia.
Nano-Pulse Stimulation for the Treatment of Breast Cancer
Journal cover illustration about the use of nano-pulse stimulation to treat breast cancer. Nano-pulse stimulation is believed to trigger a signaling cascade within the tumor cells that ends in immunogenic apoptosis.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a collection of specific cells and proteins that control the movement of molecules from the blood to the central nervous system (CNS).
Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart can't pump enough blood to the body. Cardiogenic shock is the leading cause of death in acute myocardial infarction. Symptoms of cardiogenic shock include rapid breathing and heartbeat (tachycardia), mental confusion, sweating, weak pulse and poor tissue perfusion.
Common Disc Injuries
These illustrations were created for a medical device company to describe common spinal disc injuries. Intervertebral discs act as cushions between vertebrae in the spine. Degenerative disc disease is a term used to describe the changes to spinal discs as we age. When a disc bulges, it can put pressure on the spinal nerves, causing pain. In herniated discs, the jelly-like fluid within the disc leaks out due to a rupture in the annulus. This also causes pressure on the spinal nerves and pain.
Pilon fractures are injuries that occur at the lower end of the tibia and involve the weight bearing surface of the ankle joint. The fibula may also be broken.
Balloon Tamponade Device
Postpartum hemorrhage is consistently one of the top three causes of maternal mortality and is often the leading cause of maternal death; even in developed countries. This balloon tamponade device creates pressure on the uterine wall to help stop bleeding.
Endovascular thrombectomy has been shown to benefit patients with acute stroke and large-vessel occlusions. This illustration was created for a journal article tracking to what extent these technologies have taken off, and to what extent interventional cardiologists are actually using them.
Bioabsorbable Stenting Technology
Metal stents can aggravate vessels and cause stent thrombosis that prevents vessel remodeling. They can also impair future surgical interventions and impede CT or MR imaging. Bioabsorbable stent technology is an alternative to traditional metal stents. In dissolving stents the entire scaffold is gradually absorbed by the body over time.
Intramuscular Injection Sites
An intramuscular (IM) injection is a shot of medicine given into a muscle. Certain medicines need to be given into the muscle for them to work correctly. This illustration depicts the various intramuscular injection sites including the upper arm, buttocks, hip and thigh.
Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus
Left atrial appendage thrombi (fibrinous clots that form in blood vessels or heart chambers) are often caused by acute atrial fibrillation.
Pharmaceutical Film Instructions for Use
Packaging illustrations to help patients correctly handle and use an oral pharmaceutical film.
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)
Journal cover illustration about transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with aortic stenosis at intermediate or low risk for surgery. Currently, the two TAVR devices approved in the US are indicated only for patients at high risk or extreme risk/inoperable, but the literature is now showing that TAVR benefits patients intermediate or low risk for surgery.
Carotid Artery Blockage Leading to a Stroke
The illustration was for a journal article about the endovascular options for the treatment of stroke.
Drug-coated Balloons for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
My recent journal cover art about the use of drug-coated balloons to treat occluded below-the-knee arteries.
Kiwi Vacuum Delivery System
This illustration was created for a medical device company to show proper placement of the low profile cup over the flexion point of the baby’s head.
Carotid Artery Stenting
Carotid Artery Stenting art for a journal article discussing recent CREST-2 trial data that indicates carotid artery stenting (CAS) is not inferior to carotid endarterectomy.
Heart Failure and Heart Anatomy
More interventional techniques are being used to improve outcomes for patients with heart failure. This medical illustration was created to accompany a journal article’s cover story.
Taxol Producing Fungi in Yew Trees
Yew trees have a built-in, fungal security force. My recent illustration for The Scientist magazine shows Taxol-producing fungi battling with pathogenic fungi. Taxol is used in anti-cancer drugs and harvested from yew trees.
Antimicrobial Mode of Action for Canine Ear Ointment
Otitis externa refers to an inflammation of the dog's outer ear, which is commonly caused by bacterial or yeast infection. This illustration was created to demonstrate the mode of action for a veterinary company’s new ointment.
Atherectomy is a minimally invasive endovascular technique for removing plaque build-up from blood vessels in the heart and in other areas of the body.
Cardiology journal illustration depicting the human cardiovascular system including the heart and major arteries and veins.
Rectovaginal Fistula Repair with Biologic Plug
This illustration demonstrates a rectovaginal fistula repair with a biological material plug. The procedure repairs a fistula or hole between the vagina and rectum. This illustration was created for a medical device manufacturer’s marketing and educational materials.
Dual Antiplatelet Therapy
Journal cover image about duration of dual antiplatelet therapy following angioplasty. Antiplatelet medicines work to keep platelets from sticking together and forming blood clots.
Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG)/laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair (LHHR) using biologic mesh.
Drug-Coated Balloon Angioplasty for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
Drug-coated balloons for the treatment of peripheral artery disease have the potential to reduce the incidence of restenosis without having to leave anything behind.
Canine Bladder Stones
Bladder stones in dogs (urinary calculi) cause the condition urolithiasis. Stones may form anywhere in the entire urinary tract, including the bladder, ureters and kidneys.
Bone Fracture Healing
A bidirectional growth plate on the concave side of the fracture promotes bone growth in opposing directions, generating a force that brings the bone fragments into alignment.
The future of treating coronary artery disease may lie in bioresorbable scaffolds. This image was created for a journal article about cardiovascular stents that dissolve in the artery over time.
Tick Feeding Cycle
Ticks can transmit pathogens that cause disease through the process of feeding on a host animal.
Rehydrating Bone Bioscaffold
3D ProFuse Bioscaffold is a demineralized bone scaffold shaped to take advantage of natural cancellous bone properties.
Esophagogastric Fundoplication for Chronic Acid Reflux
Esophagogastric fundoplication procedure to relieve chronic acid reflux caused by gastroesophogeal valve defect.
Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
Testicular sperm aspiration allows physicians to aspirate epididymal fluid directly from the patient for male fertility testing or storage.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that causes numbness, tingling and burning in the hand. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by inflammation around the nerves in the wrist.
Severe Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Arthritis is an inflammation of joints. Osteoarthritis (OA) is divided into five stages. The highest stage, 4, is assigned to severe OA. OA that has become this advanced is likely causing significant pain and disruption to joint movement.
The illustration demonstrates desired position and proportion of the eye, brow and eyelid relative to the ocular orbit.
Coronary Artery Stent
Stents are used to treat coronary artery disease and allow blood to flow through the artery. This image was created for a cardiology journal.
Female Pelvic Floor
The pelvic floor is made of several muscle layers that form a bowl shape within the pelvis. This image illustrates a side view of the uterus, bladder, rectum and pelvic floor muscles.
Feline Olfactory System
This is a still from a recent animation project on the feline olfactory system and appetite.
Carotid stenosis is a condition in which the carotid arteries become narrowed or blocked. This image was used for a medical journal cover.
Hiatal Hernia Graft
This illustration depicts a hernia repair with a graft. In a hiatal hernia the stomach bulges up into the chest
Osteoarthritis of the Hip
Osteoarthritis occurs when inflammation and injury to a joint cause cartilage tissue to break down. The breakdown of cartilage causes pain, inflammation, and deformity.
Frill Neck Lizard
Chlamydosaurus has a frill of folded skin that normally lies around the back of the head that is erected when the lizard is threatened. These bipedal lizards can run very quickly and sometimes appear to be walking on water.
Apophyseal Avulsion Fractures of the Hip and Pelvis
Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the hip and pelvis are injuries that usually occur in the adolescent athlete. This illustration was used for a medical journal cover.
Femoral Tunnel Drilling for ACL Reconstruction
A femoral tunnel was created to aid with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This image was created for an orthopedic journal cover.
Skin Cross Section
Skin is made up of two layers that cover a third fatty layer. This illustration includes the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It includes nerves, sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles. The image was used in patient education materials.
Amniotic Membrane Perforator
Amnion perforators are used to puncture the amniotic sac (amniotomy) during labor. This illustration was used for a medical device manufacturer’s marketing materials.
Sacral Nerve Plexus
Illustration of lumbo-sacral nerve plexus, pelvis, iliac arteries, femoral arteries and lumbar spine.
Teeth Whitening Strips
Teeth whitening strips are a popular home remedy for fixing stained or discolored teeth. This image was created as a marketing piece for a dental product manufacturer.
Rotator Cuff Tear
A rotator cuff tear is a tear in one of the tendons of the four rotator cuff muscles in the shoulder. This illustration was used as a journal cover illustration demonstrating the repair of a u-shaped rotator cuff tear.
Dental Caries (Cavities)
Buccal (frontal) view of molar with dental decay.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions.
Hip Replacement Failure
Dislocation is an uncommon, but potential complication to hip replacement surgery. This illustration demonstrates the failure of a metal on metal hip implant.
Mastopexy with Biological Graft
This image was used to demonstrate the placement of a new biological graft used in comprehensive breast reconstruction and revision procedures, including mastopexy or "breast lift".
Frontal view of health adult teeth and gums.
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease or Flesh-eating bacteria syndrome, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue.
Superficial Femoral Artery Disease
Journal cover illustration about the difficulties and options for the treatment of superficial femoral artery disease (SFA).
Esophageal stricture is a narrowing of the esophagus that causes swallowing difficulties. This image was used for medical device marketing materials.
Long Bone Anatomy
Long bones consists of a layer of connective tissue called the periosteum, an outer shell of compact bone with a deeper layer of cancellous bone (spongy bone) which contains red bone marrow.
Cervical Ripening Balloon
The cervical ripening balloon is used for mechanical dilation of the cervical canal prior to labor induction at term when the cervix is unfavorable for induction.
Hybrid Coronary Revascularization
Hybrid Coronary Revascularization procedure consisting of a minimally invasive left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) graft, along with PCI of the circumflex artery.
Percutaneous Heart Failure
This illustration was created for a journal cover about the increasing incidence and treatment options for percutaneous heart failure.
Radial Fracture Plate
A distal radius fracture is surgically repaired with a plate.
Recurrent Hip Instability
This piece was created for an orthopedic journal cover. The feature story was Bipolar Reconstruction for Recurrent Instability of the Hip.
Lumbar Spinal Implant
Spinal fusion is the most widely performed surgery for scoliosis. This illustration was intended to demonstrate a spinal fixation device for correction of posterior spine defects.
Stent Balloon Removal Issues
This illustration was used to show the issues that can occur when the stent delivery balloon is removed during angioplasty.
Spinal Stenosis Device
Pedicle osteotomy device system to help correct spinal stenosis.
Radial Artery Access for Cardiac Catheterization
This image was used for an interventional cardiology journal cover article on radial artery access for diagnostic coronary angiography and PCI.
Skull Base Repair with Biological Graft
A biological graft is used to repair skull base surgery defects.
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
ICSI involves injecting a single sperm directly into an egg in order to fertilize it. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to the woman’s uterus.
Shoulder Instability in Young Athletes
This illustration was used as the journal cover art for an article on healthy athletes with a history of shoulder instability.
Buccal or Facial View (Adult Teeth)
Buccal or facial view of the adult (permanent) teeth.
Occlusal View (Adult Teeth)
Occlusal View of the adult (permanent) teeth.
Occlusal View (Adult Teeth)
Occlusal view of the adult (permanent) teeth.
Lingual View (Adult Teeth)
Lingual view of adult (permanent) teeth.