Alzheimer’s Markers in the Blood

Alzheimer’s Markers in the Blood

A dark and stormy look at biological markers in the blood that can lead to earlier Alzheimer’s diagnosis and treatment.
Parkinson's Neuron | ©Lisa A. Clark

Parkinson’s Disease

Editorial illustration about Parkinson’s disease that suggests it may be caused by the inability of cells to rid themselves of toxic materials leading to clumps of damaged cell contents (alpha-synuclein and other damaged cell organelles) to form Lewy bodies in the neuron.
Perineuronal Nets (PNNs) © Lisa A. Clark

Perineuronal Nets (PNNs)

Perineuronal nets form during postnatal development, marking the end of what’s known as the “critical period” of heightened brain plasticity. PNNs are composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and are responsible for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain. PNNs are found around certain neuron cell bodies and proximal neurites in the central nervous system. Increasingly, researchers are turning to PNNs as potential targets to enhance plasticity for the treatment of various diseases. This illustration was created for the cover The Scientist magazine.
Medtronic Ankerstim™ Occipital Nerve Stimulation Device

Medtronic Ankerstim™ Occipital Nerve Stimulation Device

Occipital Nerve Stimulation (ONS) therapy consists of applying mild electrical stimulation to the nerves via wires implanted just under the skin, near the occipital nerves at the base of the head. The wires are connected to an implanted battery that generates the stimulation, which interferes with pain signals and may evoke the sensation of tingling or paresthesia.
Blood Brain Barrier Illustration | © 2017 Lisa A. Clark

Blood-Brain Barrier

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a collection of specific cells and proteins that control the movement of molecules from the blood to the central nervous system (CNS).
Endovascular Thrombectomy

Endovascular Thrombectomy

Endovascular thrombectomy has been shown to benefit patients with acute stroke and large-vessel occlusions. This illustration was created for a journal article tracking to what extent these technologies have taken off, and to what extent interventional cardiologists are actually using them.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that causes numbness, tingling and burning in the hand. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by inflammation around the nerves in the wrist.
Sacral Nerve Plexus

Sacral Nerve Plexus

Illustration of lumbo-sacral nerve plexus, pelvis, iliac arteries, femoral arteries and lumbar spine.
Skull Base Repair with Biological Graft

Skull Base Repair with Biological Graft

A biological graft is used to repair skull base surgery defects.